The solar activity produces conditions that can influence the Earth's atmosphere, technological systems and human health. We call these conditions space weather.

Two space missions have had a paramount importance for the space weather field: SOHO, that has given us a new picture of the Sun and a way to warn for space weather effects days to weeks ahead. ACE, that has made accurate predictions possible hours ahead.

Knowledge-based neurocomputing has given a new way to forecast in real-time the space weather effects for specific users.

THE SUN

Solar interior
Sunspot
Solar flare and prominence
Coronal mass ejection Coronal hole: source of fast solar wind
Heliospheric current sheet
Studies with the MDI instrument onboard SOHO, have shown the solar interior to us. We know today where the solar magnetic field is located and produced. We see how it changes. As the magnetic flux emerges through the solar photosphere, sunspots, solar flares, prominences, coronal mass ejections, corona holes, fast solar wind and the heliospheric current sheet are produced. The solar magnetic activity is the cause of space weather.

INFLUENCES EARTH

Earth' magnetosphere and current systems
The auroral oval
Earth's lower atmosphere
The fast solar wind and fast halo coronal mass ejections cause the most severe geomagnetic storms and aurora . Intense radiation from solar flares and cosmic rays interact with earth's lower atmosphere. Climate variations have been related to the solar activity.

TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Avionics
Satellites Communication systems Power systems

AND EVEN HUMAN HEALTH