Proceedings are still available from me (email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org).
The following report was published in STEP International, Vol. 4, No. 4,
The first international workshop on the use of artificial intelligence (AI)
techniques in solar-terrestrial physics was held in Lund, Sweden, September
22-24, 1993. The workshop was sponsored by NOAA Space Environment
Laboratory, the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Extra-
terrestrial Physics, the Swedish Science Research Council, and Lund
University. The workshop general chairman was Henrik Lundstedt of
The workshop's three-day schedule included sessions on theory, applications
and data bases, demonstrations, and ample time for discussion. the sessions
consisted of invited reviews, short contributions, computer presentations,
and poster. The value of data access via Internet was shown when YOHKOH
images, Stanford Solar Magnetograms, and NOAA's solar and geophysical
images were displayed and discussed on the final day of the workshop.
The majority of presentations of the presentations at the workshop dealt
with neural network applications of Multi-Layer-Error-Back-Propagation (MLBP)
and Self-Organizing Map (SOM) neural nets, and with traditional expert systems
and fuzzy expert systems. It was, however, concluded by John Freeman that
it is the complete set of AI tools that can lead to successful missions.
An AI system should be designed to make use of the optimum tools for the
job. The system may even need to react in real-time by changing tools as the
situation changes. Ludwik Liszka exemplified the use of hybrid neural
networks, consisting of a SOM and a MLBP net. Neither were genetic algorithms
in optimizing MLBP networks nor were the combination of fuzzy systems and
neural networks such as simplified Fuzzy ART Maps exemplified. The solar-
terrestrial community clearly enters a new and exciting area of research
by using AI tools.
The following areas where AI tools could be used, and are used, were demonstrated:
Jo Ann Joselyn discussed how AI could be used by the NOAA Space Environment
Robert L. McPherron exemplified how expert systems and fuzzy expert systems could be used to assist space weather forecasters by monitoring the quality
of the input data streams, activating alarms when certain values exceed a specific threshold.
Ata Etemedi showed how AI tools could be used for detecting geophysical events thereby reducing the enormous amount of data involved and, possibly, achieving video-rate performance at telemetering.
Several papers dealt with the classification of structures; for example, in the solar wind (Predeep, Gothakaar and Shyam Khoragade, and Ralph Snel and Henrik Lundstedt), in solar radio spectrograms (Andre Csillaghy and Hans Hinterberger),
and in VHF electromagnetic pulses primarily due to lightning (Kurt Moore el al.).
A major subject in solar-terrestrial physics is forecasting or predicting space weather. The prediction of solar flares and solar activity were discussed by
David Shaw, Takehiko Aso, Shinichi Watari, and Ludwik Liszka.
The majority of papers were devoted to the prediction of geomagnetic activity.
Neural networks predictions were demonstrated by T. Detman et al., J. Freeman
et al., A.W.P. Thompson and P. Wintoft, and H. Lundstedt, and R. Snel. Non-neural net predictions were presented by D. Vassiliadis, R.L. McPherron,
and Todd Hoeksema. G.A. Stringer and R.L. McPherron presented neural network
predictions of relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbits - a subject
of current interest in connection with the damage that recently occurred with
the two Canadian Anik spacecraft.
Three papers by David Boteler, Ari Viljanen, and H. Lundstedt dealt with the
prediction of geomagnetically-induced currents. It was interesting to note
that potential users of space weather forecasts were represented including attendees from power companies in Sweden and Canada showing the important
role solar-terrestrial physics plays in our society.
The workshop proceedings, edited by Jo Ann Joselyn, H. Lundstedt, and Joanna
Trolinger, were published in December 1993. The papers demonstrate new
directions for scientific studies. We anticipate that these techniques
will be eagerly tested and developed in the wider community;
the possibilities are limitless.